As a personal trainer, you fulfill many roles for a higher purpose. You are a scientist who prepares training programmes based on your knowledge of exercise science and at the same time, you are an artist who implements the training programme for your clients to ensure that they benefit optimally. You are an educator to facilitate your clients to ultimately be independent exercisers and enhance their quality of life.You are a psychologist who will identify negative behaviour and provide abundance of motivation to get them through that extra minute on the treadmill, extra repetition or even through their darkest periods where whatever they do don’t seem to work for them. You are an inspiration to them to promote a lasting health behavioural change. That’s what it’s about.

Many of my peers have questioned, “Why did you decide to become a personal trainer and spending so much time working when others are having fun out there?”

Apart from the first paragraph, I get a sense of intrinsic satisfaction when my clients have achieved their goals and beyond. The expression on their faces when it’s weigh-in time and speaking about the fitness improvements that they have achieved could effortlessly light up a whole town. And that allows me to know that I’ve fulfilled my purpose and will be more than motivated to take on a new challenge.

Secondly, I don’t consider this as “work”. As quoted, “Do what you love, and you’ll never work a day.” That explains it all. My clients are investing their time, effort and money in exchange for my expertise and time. Therefore, my commitment to them is of utmost importance.

Having been enlisted in National Service for the next 1 year and 10 months till 7th September 2013, it has certainly affected my chasing of dreams. But, the burning passion will carry on and reignite when my conscription has been served.

“If there is no passion in your life, then have you really lived? Find your passion, whatever it may be. Become it, and let it become you and you will find great things happen for you, to you and because of you.” T. Alan Armstrong


Hasta la vista, baby.

Signing off,

Nicholas Chua


Weight Management Seminar

Posted: August 31, 2011 in Uncategorized

To enhance your knowledge of health & fitness and to help you achieve your fitness goals in the shortest time possible, Nicholas will be conducting a weight management seminar in the end of September, and you are most welcome to attend this seminar. Kindly click on this link to sign up and state your preference of the seminar date: Registration Form

For the e-flyer, please click on this link: Weight Management Seminar.

Register now! Limited places are available!

As you walk into the supermarket looking for a nice cold beverage to quench that undying thirst from the sweltering Singapore weather, you notice a mini fridge strategically positioned to capture the attention of consumers. Attractively coloured fluids in a bottle labeled with aesthetically pleasing wordings with a touch of “I am healthy!” on it.  Being increasingly health-conscious like the rest of the world, you feel this is the perfect guilt-free drink and down the bottle of VitaminWater feeling refreshed, savouring the sweet yet “healthy” beverage.

But really, what did you just drink? Nutritious water or fortified sugar water?

This may be a touchy subject because I know how many avid Vitamin Water drinkers are out there, especially in our increasingly health-conscious (but misinformed) society. However, it’s time to face the facts!

Vitamin Water gives the illusion of a healthy, hydrating, and rejuvenating miracle elixir. The bottles are beautiful, colorful, and the text on them is snappy and clever. They have empowering flavor names like “endurance,” “energy,” “essential,” and “focus.” There is no question that there is some genius marketing at hand.

However, nothing makes me cringe more than the sight of someone downing a bottle of “charge” or “balance” as though they are truly replenishing their body. The cold, hard truth is… Vitamin Water is fortified sugar water. Check the label yourself.

After researching online for their nutritional information, here’s what we’ve got.

It contains 50 Calories per serving, zero fat, and a good range of vitamins in the beverage. Wow, sounds pretty good! But wait! Let’s now identify what’s wrong with this.

  1. Ingredients: Sugar, or its disguised form, is actually second on the list. Anyone who knows how to read nutritional labels would know that ingredients of larger quantities would be nearer to the front of the list. That’s 13 grams of sugar per serving! But, the bottle is cleverly packaged to contain 2.5 servings. That would mean that if you consume the whole bottle, you’re consuming almost 33 grams of sugar or equivalent to 8 teaspoons of sugar. In comparison, a can of Coca-Cola is 39 grams of sugar.
  2. It contains less than 1% juice. So where does the vitamins come from, if not from juice? The ingredients would show that they come from chemically synthesized vitamins which you can never compare to consuming it naturally or even from a multi-vitamin pill. Of course adding vitamins to a drink doesn’t do any actual harm, but it confuses consumers into thinking that the beverage is a healthy choice. Remember, these companies don’t really care about your health and well-being… they’re trying to win you over! Our society now has become somewhat obsessed with healthier choices, and the smart companies know how to appeal to that crowd. They boast that their drink is full of essential vitamins and will somehow make you perform your daily tasks more efficiently. Trust me on this: downing a bottle of sugar water is going to do nothing but give you a sugar crash later.


These 2 reasons are sufficient to show you why they should be avoided, especially if you are looking to achieve your fitness goals or even lead a healthy lifestyle.

A lawsuit, brought by Center for Science in the Public Interest alleges that VitaminWater labels and advertising are filled with “deceptive and unsubstantiated claims”.  At oral arguments, defendants (Coca-Cola) suggested that no consumer could reasonably be misled into thinking vitamin water was a healthy beverage.” Hence, are they implying that only unreasonable consumers are misled into perceiving that the beverage is healthy?

Now, Vitamin Water is not pure poison. It is certainly not a health food or something that I would personally drink, but if the choice is between Vitamin Water or soda, I suppose Vitamin Water is a wiser choice. But you know what the smartest choice is? Water. Real water. It is crucial to keep your body properly hydrated at all times, and pure water is the only way to do this. Drinks that are full with sugar only continue to dehydrate the body, regardless of their water content.

In the mean time, don’t buy VitaminWater. Unless, of course, you think you could use 32 grams of liquid sugars and some synthetic vitamin chemicals in your diet. And if you somehow think that VitaminWater is healthy, the Coca-Cola Corporation thinks you are a fool.

And it’s probably not the best idea to rely on a soft drink company for your vitamins and other essential nutrients. A plant-strong diet with lots of vegetables and fruits will provide you with what you need far more reliably, far more consistently — and far more honestly.


I would like to share with my readers, a video made by the non-profit Consumer Wellness Center regarding VitaminWater. This is the link to the video. The Vitamin Water Deception

For a list of vitamins and minerals, their sources and the recommended daily allowances of them, click here.

Sitting is Killing You!

Posted: May 24, 2011 in Uncategorized

As we enter the second decade of the 21st century, there is one thing nearly all modern people have in common: we sit all the time. Though our great shift towards computer-based work has done great things for productivity, it has, unfortunately, done terrible things for our health. From increased risk of heart disease and obesity in the long term, to sharply hampered cholesterol maintenance in the short term, the negative health effects of sitting are starting to weigh heavily against the benefits. Even the medical field – the greatest advocates of reducing sitting time – is plagued by this new health issue. Though doctors and nurses get plenty of walking time, it usually falls to the secretaries, billers, and coders to do all the sitting. And, as we can see, something has to change.

Sitting is Killing You
Via: Medical Billing And Coding @

15 Biggest Nutrition Myths

Posted: May 24, 2011 in Nutrition

Angelina’s jealous that Brad’s still secretly in love with Jennifer! Tom Cruise keeps Katie Holmes trapped in a crazed religious complex! And aliens are manning the toll booths on a Nevada freeway! How do I know these things are true? Because I read them in the tabloids at my local supermarket.

The supermarket is rife with less-than-accurate reporting, and not just in the checkout-lane newspaper racks. Walk the aisles scanning food labels and you’ll see the fallout from millions of lobbying and advertising dollars spent to posit faulty claims about health and nutrition. You’ll find row upon endless row of foods that promise—explicitly or not—to improve your life, flatten your belly, and make you a happier person. The fact is, many of these foods do just the opposite. Learn how to separate fact from fiction and you might finally shed the habits that are silently sabotaging your chances of losing weight. But I must warn you: The truth can hurt.

MYTH #1: High fructose corn syrup is worse than table sugar
Whether or not added sugar is bad for you has never been in dispute. The less sugar you eat, the better. But whether HFCS is worse than plain ol’ table sugar has long been a contentious issue. Here’s what you need to know: Both HFCS and table sugar, or sucrose, are built with roughly a 50-50 blend of two sugars, fructose, and glucose. That means in all likelihood that your body can’t tell one from the other—they’re both just sugar. HFCS’s real sin is that it’s supercheap, and as a result, it’s added to everything from cereal to ketchup to salad dressing. Plus it may be affecting your health in ways not yet fully understood by the scientific community. Is it a good idea to minimize the HFCS in your diet? Absolutely. It’s best to cut out all unnecessary sugars. But HFCS’s role as nutritional enemy #1 has been exaggerated.

MYTH #2: Sea salt is a healthier version of regular salt
Everyday table salt comes from a mine and contains roughly 2,300 milligrams of sodium per teaspoon. Sea salt comes from evaporated seawater, and it also contains roughly 2,300 milligrams of sodium. That makes them, well, roughly identical. Advocates point to the fact that sea salt also contains other compounds like magnesium and iron, but in truth, these minerals exist in trace amounts. To obtain a meaningful dose, you’d have to take in extremely high and potentially dangerous levels of sodium. What’s more, traditional table salt is regularly fortified with iodine, which plays an important role in regulating the hormones in your body. Sea salt, on the other hand, gives you virtually zero iodine. The bottom line is this: If switching from table salt to sea salt causes you to consume even one extra granule, then you’ve just completely snuffed out whatever elusive health boon you hope to receive. Plus you’ve wasted a few bucks.

MYTH #3: Energy drinks are less harmful than soda
Energy drinks like Red Bull, Monster, and Full Throttle attempt to boost your energy with a cache of B vitamins, herbal extracts, and amino acids. But what your body’s going to remember most (especially around your waistline) is the sugar in these concoctions; a 16-ounce can delivers as much as 280 calories of pure sugar, which is about 80 calories more than you’d find in a 16-ounce cup of Pepsi. What’s more, a University of Maryland study found energy drinks to be 11 percent more corrosive to your teeth than regular soda. So here’s the secret that energy drink companies don’t want you to know: The only proven, significant energy boost comes from caffeine. If you want an energy boost, save yourself the sugar spike and drink a cup of coffee.

MYTH #4: Diet soda is harmless
The obesity-research community is becoming increasingly aware that the artificial sweeteners used in diet soda—aspartame and sucralose, for instance—lead to hard-to-control food urges later in the day. One Purdue study discovered that rats took in more calories if they’d been fed artificial sweeteners prior to mealtime, and a University of Texas study found that people who consume just three diet sodas per week were more than 40 percent more likely to be obese. Try weaning yourself off by switching to carbonated water and flavoring with lemon, cucumber, and fresh herbs.

MYTH #5: Low-fat foods are better for you
As it applies to food marketing, the term “low fat” is synonymous with “loaded with salt and cheap carbohydrates.” For instance, look at Smucker’s Reduced Fat Peanut Butter. To replace the fat it skimmed out, Smucker’s added a fast-digesting carbohydrate called maltodextrin. That’s not going to help you lose weight. A 2008 study in the New England Journal of Medicine found that over a 2-year span, people on low-carb diets lost 62 percent more body weight than those trying to cut fat. (Plus, the fat in peanut butter is heart-healthy monounsaturated fat—you’d be better off eating more of it, not less!)

MYTH #6: “Trans-fat free” foods are actually trans-fat free
The FDA’s guidelines allow companies to claim 0 grams of trans fat—even broadcast it on the front of their packages—as long as the food in question contains no more than 0.5 grams of trans fat per serving. But here’s the deal: Due to an inextricable link to heart disease, the World Health Organization advises people to keep trans fat intake as low as possible, maxing out at about 1 gram per 2,000 calories consumed. If your cupboard’s full of foods with almost half a gram per serving, you might be blowing past that number every single day. The American Journal of Health Promotion recently published an article urging the FDA to rethink its lax regulations, but until that happens, you should avoid all foods with “partially hydrogenated oil” (meaning, trans fats) on their ingredients statements.

MYTH #7: Foods labeled “natural” are healthier
The FDA makes no serious effort to control the use of the word “natural” on nutrition labels. Case in point: 7UP boasts that it’s made with “100% Natural Flavors” when, in fact, the soda is sweetened with a decidedly un-natural dose of high fructose corn syrup. “Corn” is natural, but “high fructose corn syrup” is produced using a centrifuge and a series of chemical reactions. Other “natural” abusers include Natural Cheetos, which are made with maltodextrin and disodium phosphate, and “natural advantage” Post Raisin Bran, which bathes its raisins in both sugar and corn syrup. The worst part is, you’re likely paying a premium price for common junk food.

MYTH #8: Egg yolks raise your cholesterol
Egg yolks contain dietary cholesterol; this much is true. But research has proven that dietary cholesterol has almost nothing to do with serum cholesterol, the stuff in your blood. Wake Forest University researchers reviewed more than 30 egg studies and found no link between egg consumption and heart disease, and a study in Saint Louis found that eating eggs for breakfast could decrease your calorie intake for the remainder of the day.

MYTH #9: Eating junk food helps battle stress
You’ve been there: Stressed out and sprawled across your sofa with one arm elbow deep in a bag of cheese puffs. In the moment, it can be comforting, but a study published in the British Journal of Psychiatry found that people who consumed the most highly processed foods were 58 percent more likely to be depressed than those who ate the least.

MYTH #10: Chocolate is bad for you
Cocoa is a plant-based food replete with flavonoids that increase blood flow and release feel-good endorphins. Plus, it contains a healthy kind of saturated fat called stearic acid, which research has shown can increase your good HDL cholesterol. But here’s the rub: When most people think of chocolate, their minds jump immediately to milk chocolate, which contains far more sugar than actual cocoa. Instead, look for dark chocolate, specifically those versions that tell you exactly how much cocoa they contain. A bar with 60% cocoa is good, but the more cocoa it contains, the greater the health effects.

Myth #11: Granola is good for you
Oats are good for you, and the same goes for oatmeal. But granola takes those good-for-you hunks of flattened oat, blankets them in sugar, and bakes them in oil to give them crunch. The amount of fat and sugar added to each oat is at the discretion of food processors, but you can bet your last cup of milk it’s going to far sweeter and more fatty than a bowl of regular cereal. Take this example: A single cup of Quaker Natural Granola, Nuts & Raisins has 420 calories, 30 grams of sugar, and 10 grams of fat. Switch to a humble cup of Kix and you drop down about 90 calories, 2.5 grams of sugar, and 1 gram of fat.

MYTH #12: Bananas are the best source of potassium
Your body uses potassium to keep your nerves and muscles firing efficiently, and an adequate intake can blunt sodium’s effect on blood pressure. One 2009 study found that a 2:1 ratio of potassium to sodium could halve your risk of heart disease, and since the average American consumes about 3,400 milligrams of sodium each day, your goal should be 6,800 milligrams of daily potassium. You’re extremely unlikely to ever reach that mark—and never with bananas alone. One medium banana has 422 milligrams and 105 calories. Here are the sources that earn you roughly the same amount of potassium in fewer calories:

  • Potato, half a medium spud, 80 calories
  • Apricots, 5 whole fruit, 80 calories
  • Cantaloupe, 1 cup cubes, 55 calories
  • Broccoli, 1 full stalk, 50 calories
  • Sun-dried tomatoes, a quarter cup, 35 calories

MYTH #13: Oranges are the best source of vitamin C
Far more than a simple immune booster, vitamin C is an antioxidant that plays a host of important roles in your body. It strengthens skin by helping to build collagen, improves mood by increasing the flow of norepinephrine, and bolsters metabolic efficiency by helping transport fat cells into the body’s energy-burning mitochondria. But since your body can neither store nor create the wonder vitamin, you need to provide a constant supply. An orange is the most famous vitamin-C food, and although it’s a good source, it’s by no means the best. For 70 calories, one orange gives you about 70 micrograms of vitamin C. Here are five sources with just as much vitamin C and even fewer calories:

  • Papaya, ¾ cup, 50 calories
  • Brussel’s sprouts, 1 cup, 40 calories
  • Strawberries, 7 large fruit, 40 calories
  • Broccoli, ½ stalk, 25 calories
  • Red Bell Pepper, ½ medium pepper, 20 calories

MYTH #14: Organic is always better
Often, but not in every case. Organic produce is almost nutritionally identical to its conventional counterpart. The issue is pesticide exposure—pesticides have been linked to an increased risk of obesity in some studies. But many conventionally grown fruits and vegetables are very low in pesticides. Take, for example, the conventional onion: It’s got the lowest pesticide load of 45 fruits and vegetables tested by the Environmental Working Group. Also in the safe-to-eat-conventional group are avocados, sweet corn, and pineapple. In general, fruits and vegetables with impermeable skins are safe to buy conventional, while produce like celery, peaches, apples, and blueberries are better purchased organic.

MYTH #15: Meat is bad for you
Pork, beef, and lamb are among the world’s best sources of complete protein, and a Danish study found that dieting with 25 percent of calories from protein can help you lose twice as much weight as dieting with 12 percent protein. Then there’s vitamin B12, which is prevalent only in animal-based foods. B12 is essential to your body’s ability to decode DNA and build red blood cells, and British researchers found that adequate intakes protect against age-related brain shrinkage. Now, if you’re worried that meat will increase your risk for heart disease, don’t be. A Harvard review last year looked at 20 studies and found that meat’s link to heart disease exists only with processed meats like bacon, sausage, and deli cuts. Unprocessed meats, those that hadn’t been smoked, cured, or chemically preserved, presented absolutely zero risk.

Source: David Zinczenko, Matt Goulding (2011) 15 Biggest Nutrition Myths Retrieved from,

Heart Rate Training Zones

Posted: May 16, 2011 in Training

Why do we bother measuring and using heart rate?

It’s effectively a way of looking at the effort we’re making so we know how hard we’re working and, ultimately, how hard we can work. Use of heart rate training zones lets us make efficient use of our training time and gives us a measure of improvement. We generally split training zones by looking at percentage heart rates based on maximum heart rate alone, or maximum and minimum heart rates. The information below shows the convention of heart rate zones, the uses of that particular zone, and the percentage heart rates used to bracket these zones. Heart rate training zones are calculated by taking into consideration your Maximum Heart Rate (MHR) and your Resting Heart Rate (RHR). Within each training zone, subtle physiological effects take place to enhance your fitness.



Calculating training zones using heart rate

Firstly, we need to find out your estimated Maximum Heart Rate (MHR) and your Resting Heart Rate (RHR). Your MHR can be established through laboratory tests or estimated by this formula: 220bpm – Age. For a person who is 50 years old, his/her estimated heart rate is 220-50 = 170bpm. This formula, may have a standard deviation of 7-11 beats/min but is used because it is simple to remember. Other formulas would include HRmax = 217 − (0.85 × age) (Miller et al.) and HRmax = 205.8 − (0.685 × age).

As for the RHR, find somewhere nice and quiet, lie down and relax. Position a watch or clock where you can clearly see it whilst lying down. You may simply determine your pulse per 10 seconds and multiply by 6, or use a heart rate monitor and look for the lowest value. After 20 minutes determine your resting pulse rate (beats/min). Use this value as your RHR.


Training/Target Heart Rate (THR)

Based on your personal fitness goals, you can bring your heart rate into the different zones aforementioned to achieve your desired results. One of the methods you may use is the ‘Karvonen Method’.

The Karvonen method factors in resting heart rate (HRrest) to calculate target heart rate (THR), using a range of 50–85% intensity:

THR = ((HRmax − HRrest) × % intensity) + HRrest

Example for someone with a HRmax of 180 and a HRrest of 70:

50% intensity: ((180 − 70) × 0.50) + 70 = 125 bpm

85% intensity: ((180 − 70) × 0.85) + 70 = 163 bpm


Calculating calories burnt using heart rate

For males, estimate the calories that you burned during your exercise session. This is given by the equation C = (0.6309 x H + 0.09036 x W + 0.2017 x A — 55.0969) x T / 4.184. C is the number of calories that you burned, H is your average heart rate, W is your weight, A is your age and T is the length of your exercise session in minutes.

For females, derive the calories that you burned. This is given by the equation C = (0.4472 x H — 0.05741 x W + 0.074 x A — 20.4022) x T / 4.184. Assume that you’re a 28-year-old female weighing 146 pounds. Your average heart rate during an exercise session that lasted 36 minutes was 138 bpm. You burned C = (0.4472 x 138 — 0.05741 x 146 + 0.074 x 28 — 20.4022) x 36 / 4.184 = 301 calories.

Hence, your training zones are important to ensure that you are actually putting in an optimal effort to achieve your fitness goals and to plan your workouts better.






Wikipedia (2011) Heart Rate Retrieved from,

Brian Mackenzie Heart Rate Training Zones Retrieved from,

Royal Air Force Triathlon Heart-rate Training Zones Retrieved from,

Allan Robinson (2011) How to Estimate Calories Burned by Heart Rate Retrieved from,

Overreaching and Overtraining

Posted: May 9, 2011 in Training

Understanding the term “overreaching”.

Distinguishing overtraining from overreaching is important, because overreaching is a very natural process when we train. If you take a look at one of my training programs, you will see that it is based on three weeks with overreaching followed by one recovery week.

When you get to the third week, you will not feel stronger than you were in the first week, but after a recovery week with super compensation, you will be stronger than you were when you entered the program. Using a training program structure like this is what I call ‘controlled overtraining’.

Overtraining doesn’t happen overnight.

Overtraining is a physical, behavioral, and emotional condition that occurs when the volume and intensity of an individual’s exercise exceeds their recovery capacity. They cease making progress, and can even begin to lose strength and fitness. Overtraining is a common problem in weight training, but it can also be experienced by runners and other athletes.

Many people use the term ‘overtraining’ for both overreaching and overtraining and I guess that is why many people diagnose themselves as overtrained.

The problem is that if you are really in an overtraining situation, it can take several months before your performance is back at 100%. If you have overreached in a period, a week or two is normally enough to get you back on track.

This principle is often used in tapering protocols, where training volume is reduced the last two or three weeks before a big event. Overtraining syndrome doesn´t happen over a night or week. It takes 6 to 8 weeks or even longer to develop.


Causes of overtraining:

It is possible to categorise certain factors, if permitted to accumulate, which will bring about a state of over-training. They are as follows:

  • Recovery is neglected (mistakes in the build-up of training cycles, inadequate use of general exercise sessions for recovery)
  • Inappropriate increase in frequency of training or extent of loading or density of loading
  • Demands are increased too quickly, so that adaptation cannot be consolidated
  • Too rapid increase of loading after forced breaks (injuries, illness)
  • Too great an extent of loadings of maximum and sub-maximum intensity
  • Too high an intensity of duration loadings in endurance training
  • Excessive and forced technical schooling in complicated courses of movement without adequate recovery
  • Excess of competitions with maximum demands, combined with frequent disturbance of the daily routine and insufficient training
  • Excessive bias of training methods and units


Other factors that can reduce performance:

  • Life Style:
    • Inadequate sleep, irregular routine by day
    • Use of alcohol and nicotine
    • Excess of caffeine
    • Bad living conditions (noise, overcrowding, inadequate light, etc.)
    • Over stimulating company
    • Lack of free time or inability to make good use of free time (no relaxation)
    • Nutritional deficiencies (lack of vitamins)
    • Rush and hurry
    • Frequent necessity to adjust body-weight
    • Taking on more stresses when already at capacity
  • Environment:
    • Over burdening with family duties
    • Tensions within family (parents, husband, wife)
    • Difficulties in personal relationships
    • Dissatisfaction with career, studies, school
    • Bad assessment and marks in school, in studies, etc.
    • Conflict of attitudes to sport (family, superiors)
    • Excess of stimuli (TV, cinema)
    • Increased burden in one area of environment (e.g. final exams, A levels)
  • Health Upsets:
    • Feverish colds, stomach or intestinal upsets
    • Chronic illnesses
    • After effect of infectious illness


Common signs and symptoms of overtraining:

Physical Signs & Symptoms

  • Elevated resting pulse / heart rate
  • Frequent minor infections
  • Increased susceptibility to colds and flu’s
  • Increases in minor injuries
  • Chronic muscle soreness or joint pain
  • Exhaustion
  • Lethargy
  • Weight loss
  • Appetite loss
  • Insatiable thirst or dehydration
  • Intolerance to exercise
  • Decreased performance
  • Delayed recovery from exercise

Psychological Signs & Symptoms

  • Fatigued, tired, drained, lack of energy
  • Reduced ability to concentrate
  • Apathy or no motivation
  • Irritability
  • Anxiety
  • Depression
  • Headaches
  • Insomnia
  • Inability to relax
  • Twitchy, fidgety or jittery
Treatment/Prevention of overtraining:
  • Taking a break from training to allow time for recovery.
  • Reducing the volume and/or the intensity of the training.
  • Suitable periodization of training.
  • Splitting the training program so that different sets of muscles are worked on different days.
  • Increase sleep time.
  • Deep-tissue or sports massage of the affected muscles.
  • Avoid incorrect exercise selection (overuse of certain muscles or joints).
  • Avoid excessive use of eccentric muscle actions.
  • Take into account the cumulative training stresses from other forms of exercise (i.e., cardiovascular training, sport-specific training, etc.)
  • Ensuring that calorie intake at least matches expenditure.
  • Ensuring total calories are from a suitable macronutrient ratio.
  • Addressing vitamin deficiencies with nutritional supplements.
Elizabeth Quinn “Can You Overtrain with Weights?” Retrieved from,
Wikipedia “Overtraining” Retrieved from,